## Fluid StaticsEdit

### 1. NJ standards addressed in the unit Edit

5.1.A.1, 5.1.A.3, 5.1.B.1, 5.2.B.1, 5.2.B.2, 5.2.B.3. 5.3, 5.4.A.1

### 2. Length total (days and periods) Edit

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### 3. Prerequisite Edit

What students should know and have done before the start of the unit.

- matter consists of particles that are in random motion

- pressure is due to collisions with particles in a surface

- Newton’s Laws

- Kinematics/ constant acceleration

### 4. Goals Edit

#### ConceptualEdit

**Static:**

1. Fluid pushes up on submerged object and why (pressure difference and fluid needs to support itself).

2. Upward force does not depend on mass of the object, only on volume of the object and density of fluid for fully submerged objects..

3. For any totally submerged object, lowering it deeper does not affect the upward force (buoyant force) exerted on it by the fluid.

4. Buoyant force depends on the volume of the submerged portion of the object, not on the total volume of the object.

5. Density of fluid (not of the submerged object) affects the value of the buoyant force that the fluid exerts on the object when totally submerged.

**Dynamic:**

- Idea of fluid flow rate

- Idea that pressure on a surface decreases as the speed of the fluid across the surface increases.

- Develop a relationship between fluid pressure, gravitational energy density and kinetic energy density (Bernoulli’s Principle).

#### QuantitativeEdit

- Learn to use different hypothesis to make predictions and then reject a hypothesis based on the outcome.

- Represent gas processes using graphs, bar charts and mathematics, and to describe the process using micro and macroscopic quantities.

- Design experiments to test an idea and determine its validity based on the outcome.

- Apply ideas to everyday processes.

#### Procedural Edit

**Static:**

- ρ=m/V

- P = Patm +ρgh

- P = F/A

- Archimedes Principle

- Bernoulli’s Principle

**Dynamic:**

- Flow rate Q = ∆V/∆t = vA

- P1-P2 = (1/2)ρ(v2^2 – v1^2) + ρg(y2-y1) (use of bar charts)

#### EpistemologicalEdit

### 5. Key Concepts and Cross-Curricula Links Edit

### 6. Potential Difficulties Edit

### 7. Relevance Edit

### 8. Curriculum Materials Edit

### 9. Full Two Period Lab Edit

For the Teacher – Fluid Statics:
**Title:** Help I’m Sinking!

**NJ Standards:**

**STANDARD 5.1** (Scientific Process) All students will develop problem solving, decision-making, and enquiry skills, reflected by formulating useful questions and hypotheses, planning experiments, conducting systematic observations, interpreting and analyzing data, drawling conclusion, and communicating results.
Standard

**5.1.A.1:** When making decisions, evaluate conclusions, weigh evidence, and recognize that arguments may not have equal merit.

(*ALG exercises*)

**Standard 5.1.A.3:** Engage in collaboration, peer review, and accurate reporting of findings.

(*ALG group work*)

**Standard: 5.1.B.1:** Select and use appropriate instrumentation to design and conduct investigations.

(*Figure out how to use Archimedes bucket to demonstrate Archimedes principle.*)

**Standard 5.1.B.2:** Show that experimental results can lead to new questions and further investigations.

(*Cartesian Diver*)

C. Safety
1. Understand, evaluate and practice safe procedures for conducting science investigations.

**STANDARD 5.2** (Science and Society) All students will develop an understanding of how people of various cultures have contributed to the advancement of science and technology, and how major discoveries and events have advanced science and technology

**Standard 5.2.B.1:** Examine the lives and contributions of important scientists who effected major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and designed world.

(*Short discretion of Descartes Life and another scientist Pascal or Archimedes*)

**Standard 5.2.B.2:** Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has played an important part as well as technological advances that have contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge.

(*Knowledge of buoyancy has affected the design of ships.*)

**Standard 5.2.B.3:** Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments such as atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., showing how scientific theories develop, are tested, and can be replaced or modified in light of new information and improved investigative techniques.

(*Archimedes discovery of Archimedes’ principle while he was in a bath.*)

**STANDARD 5.3** (Mathematical Applications) All students will integrate mathematics as a tool for the problem-solving in science, and as a means of expressing and/or modeling scientific theories.

(*ALG exercise and derivation of Archimedes’ principle*)

**STANDARD 5.4** (Nature and Process of Technology) All students will understand the interrelationships between science and technology and develop a conceptual understanding of the nature and process of technology.

**Standard 5.4.A.1:** Know that scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world and seeks to answer questions that may or may not directly influence humans, while technology is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems.

(*Experiments with potato and Coke cans*)

**What the students should know before they start the lesson:**

ρ=m/V

P = Patm +ρgh

P = F/A

**Goals of the lesson:**

Upward force depends on volume (not on mass or density).

Fluid pushes up on submerged object and why (pressure difference and fluid needs to support itself).

Upward force does not depend on mass of the object, only on volume of the object and density of fluid.

For any totally submerged object, lowering it deeper does not affect the upward force (buoyant force) exerted on it by the fluid.

Buoyant force depends on the volume of the submerged portion of the object, not on the total volume of the object.

Density of fluid (not of the submerged object) affects the value of the buoyant force that the fluid exerts on the object when totally submerged.

**Real life connections:**
- Boat construction
- Floating in Dead Sea, Salt Lake

**Need to Know: Cool Experiments, Motivation, etc.**- Coke cans
- Cartesian Diver
- Potato in salt water vs. regular water
- Helium ballon vs. regular air balloon
- Water and oil in a container with food coloring

**Student potential difficulties:**
- Upward force depends on volume (not on mass or density).
- For any totally submerged object, lowering it deeper does not affect the upward force (buoyant force) exerted on it by the fluid.
- Buoyant force depends on the volume of the submerged portion of the object, not on the total volume of the object.
- Density of fluid (not of the submerged object) affects the value of the buoyant force that the fluid exerts on the object when totally submerged.
- Viscosity vs. Density

**Equipment needed:** Newton spring scales, soda cans, large plastic bin, graduated cylinders, water, oil, internet, soda bottles, sand, string.

**Lesson description:**
- 10.3.5: Provide students with a table to help guide them to realize that force exerted by the liquid depends on the volume of the submerged object. Give ½ students table with water, ½ with oil.
- 10.3.6 and 10.3.7: this problem strengthens 10.3.5 and also shows that upward force is dependent on the density of liquid.
- 10.3.8: Formative Assessment activity
- 10.3.11
- 10.3.10: Another FA activity. This problem also helps students develop idea that if density of object is less than liquid, it floats. If density is more than liquid it sinks.
- Other experiments (potato, Cartesian Diver, bottle with oil/water, Coke cans)
- Formative Assessments
- Summary

**Time Table**
Time (min) Activity Students doing? Teacher doing?
20 Cool Experiments Observing, thinking, formulating concepts Demonstrating, asking questions
30 10.3.5 Working in groups/pairs, completing activity Walking around making sure: each group is on task, all students are participating.
5 10.3.6 Working in groups/pairs, completing activity Walking around making sure: each group is on task, all students are participating.
10 10.3.7 Working in groups/pairs, completing activity Walking around making sure: each group is on task, all students are participating.
5 10.3.8 Working individually Have students present their findings.
15 10.3.11
15 10.3.10 Work individually on table. Perform experiment for the class, have students present their findings.
15 Other cool experiments
15 Formative Assessment
10 Summary
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